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An update on the safety of SGLT2 inhibitors

Introduction: Sodium-glucose 中的主要功能 Expert Option 中的主要功能 Expert Option cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) are recommended after metformin for a large spectrum of patients with type 2 diabetes, because of a favorable benefit/risk profile despite a variety of adverse events.

Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the safety profile of SGLT2is: initial concerns (cardiovascular safety, acute renal failure, hypoglycemia, urinary and genital infections, volume depletion, bladder cancer), further concerns (中的主要功能 Expert Option 中的主要功能 Expert Option euglycemic ketoacidosis, bone fractures) and more recent concerns (lower limb amputation, Fournier's 中的主要功能 Expert Option gangrene).

Expert opinion: Overall, the safety profile of SGLT2is is good. The only increased adverse event that was consistently reported in clinical 中的主要功能 Expert Option 中的主要功能 Expert Option trials and observational studies is genital mycotic infections, with only a borderline increase in urinary tract infections. Among clinical trials, only the CANVAS program reported an unexpected increase in bone fractures and peripheral amputations. A variety of rare adverse events have been described as case reports, including ketoacidosis, amputations and Fournier gangrene, which led to specific warnings by regulatory agencies. Identifying predisposing patient's characteristics and/or precipitating clinical conditions would help prevent the most severe complications. These adverse events should not mask the overall cardiovascular and renal benefit of SGLT2is, especially in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk.

Keywords: Adverse event; cardiovascular disease; complications; gliflozin; safety; sglt2 inhibitor; type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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expert (adj.)

late 14c., "having had experience; skillful," from Old French expert , espert "experienced, practiced, skilled" and directly from Latin expertus (中的主要功能 Expert Option contracted from *experitus ), "tried, proved, known by experience," past participle of experiri "to try, test," from ex "out of" (see ex-) + peritus "experienced, tested," from PIE *per-yo- , suffixed form of root *per- (3) "to try, risk." The adjective tends to be accented on the second syllable, the noun on the first. Related: Expertly ; expertness .

early 15c., "person wise through experience," from expert (adj.). The word reappeared 1825 in the legal sense, "person who, by virtue of special acquired knowledge or experience on a subject, presumably not within the knowledge of men generally, may testify in a court of justice to matters of opinion thereon, as distinguished from ordinary witnesses, who can 中的主要功能 Expert Option in general testify only to facts" [Century Dictionary].

Entries linking to expert

word-forming 中的主要功能 Expert Option element, in English meaning usually "out of, from," but also "upwards, completely, deprive of, without," and "former;" from Latin ex "out of, from within; from which time, since; according to; in regard to," from PIE *eghs "out" (source also of Gaulish ex- , Old Irish ess- , Old Church Slavonic izu , Russian iz ). In some cases also from Greek cognate ex , ek . PIE *eghs had comparative form *eks-tero and superlative *eks-t(e)r-emo- . Often reduced to e- before -b- , -d- , -g- , consonantal -i- , -l- , -m- , -n- , -v- (as in elude , emerge , evaporate , etc.).

Proto-Indo-European root meaning "to try, risk," an extended sense 中的主要功能 Expert Option 中的主要功能 Expert Option from root *per- (1) "forward," via the notion of "to lead across, 中的主要功能 Expert Option press forward."

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Latin experiri "to try," periculum "trial, risk, danger;" Greek peira "trial, attempt, experience," empeiros "experienced;" Old Irish aire "vigilance;" Old English fær "calamity, 中的主要功能 Expert Option sudden danger, peril, sudden attack," German Gefahr "danger," Gothic ferja "watcher.

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