An evaluation of hydromethylthionine as a treatment option for Alzheimer's disease
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and its prevalence is expected to rise. Previous studies involving compounds that target the accumulation of amyloid β protein have been unsuccessful, renewing interest in 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option therapies directed against intracellular deposits of tau proteins. Derived from methylene blue, hydromethylthionine is a tau aggregation inhibitor that recently emerged as a promising disease-modifying treatment for AD.
Areas covered: Herein, the authors cover the chemistry, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of hydromethylthionine and its oxidized form methylthionine chloride (MTC) that was first studied, as well as clinical efficacy and safety of hydromethylthionine in the treatment of mild to moderate AD.
Expert opinion: Randomized clinical trials with hydromethylthionine failed to show any impact of the doses used on the disease course. Data analysis from a non-randomized cohort showed that a smaller dose of the drug previously thought to be ineffective and used as placebo, prescribed as monotherapy rather than as add-on to AD approved symptomatic therapies may slow cognitive decline. This finding was further confirmed by a pharmacokinetic analysis study showing a dose/response relationship with doses around 16 mg daily. Future trials need to study the pharmacological properties of hydromethylthionine and ascertain the optimal safe and effective dose to be used.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; disease-modifying therapy; hydromethylthionine; leuco-methylthioninium; methylene blue; tau aggregation inhibitor.
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U.S. stock options traders see little drama around Fed’s Jackson Hole event
NEW YORK (Reuters) - Federal Reserve policy has sparked big moves in markets this year, but 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option options traders expect few fireworks around the central bank’s annual symposium this week in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.
Options positioning shows traders expect a 1.4% move in the S&P 500 on Aug. 26, the day Fed Chairman Powell is set to give his speech, according to Matt Amberson, principal at options analytics 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option firm ORATS. That is only slightly above the expected 1.0% daily move options are implying for stocks over the next month.
"The equity volatility market appears to be treating Jackson Hole as a non-event," said Garrett DeSimone, head quant at OptionMetrics.
While there is still time for volatility expectations to pick up ahead of the event, for now, options pricing reflect "relatively low pricing for crash risk," DeSimone said.
Market participants gave a range of reasons on why expectations for volatility may be muted. The market has had a heaping dose of Fed-speak in recent weeks, with policymakers pushing against expectations of peaking inflation and a dovish pivot from the Fed, giving investors a clearer picture of the central bank’s thinking.
And while markets broadly expect the Fed to raise rates by another 50 to 75 basis points when it meets again in September, Powell’s outlook on future policy will likely be colored 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option by economic data reports that are due that month, including key numbers on inflation and employment.
"Everybody is kind of on the same page: we are in a tightening process, that process is likely going to gradually slow," said Randy Frederick, vice president of trading and derivatives for the Schwab Center for Financial Research.
"For markets to be pricing in higher volatility, it usually means they are expecting surprises . I just think no one is expecting any earth-shattering revelations at that meeting," Frederick said.
On average, Fed Chairs' Jackson Hole speeches have not been big market movers in recent years. Only once in the last 10 years has the S&P 500 logged a greater than 1% move on the day the Jackson Hole symposium heard from the Fed chief.
Though stocks have been far more volatile than normal this year, market gyrations have eased in recent months alongside a rebound that has seen the 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option S&P 500 gain 15% from its mid-June lows.
The Cboe Volatility Index, an options-based indicator that reflects demand for protection against drops in the stock market, is at around 20, compared to a high of nearly 40 reached earlier this year.
Still, some market watchers believe an even more hawkish-than-expected view from Powell could hit stocks.
Minutes from the Fed’s July meeting showed on Wednesday that policymakers were committed to raising rates as high as necessary to tame inflation. Several Fed speakers, including St. Louis Fed President James Bullard and San Francisco Fed President Mary Daly, have since stressed that policymakers need to keep raising borrowing costs to bring surging prices under control.
"I sense they are probably setting the stage for (Powell), and his speech is a little bit more on the hawkish side," said Gregory Faranello, head of U.S. rates trading and strategy for AmeriVet Securities. "If it is . we could 如何设置社交交易 Expert Option see a selloff in equities."
(Reporting by Saqib Iqbal Ahmed; Editing by Ira Iosebashvili and Daniel Wallis)
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