Opioid dependence treatment: options in pharmacotherapy
The development of effective treatments for opioid dependence is of great importance given the devastating consequences of the disease. Pharmacotherapies for opioid addiction include opioid agonists, partial agonists, opioid antagonists, and alpha-2-adrenergic agonists, which are targeted toward either detoxification or 中的主要功能 Expert Option long-term agonist maintenance. Agonist maintenance therapy is currently the recommended treatment for 中的主要功能 Expert Option opioid dependence due to its superior outcomes relative to detoxification. Detoxification protocols have limited long-term efficacy, and patient discomfort remains a significant therapy challenge. Buprenorphine's effectiveness relative to methadone remains a controversy and may 中的主要功能 Expert Option be most appropriate for patients in need of low doses of agonist treatment. Buprenorphine appears superior to alpha-2 agonists, however, and office-based treatment with 中的主要功能 Expert Option buprenorphine in the USA is gaining support. Studies of sustained-release formulations of naltrexone suggest improved effectiveness for retention and sustained abstinence; however, randomized clinical trials are needed.
Conflict of interest statement
Declaration of interest: Thomas Kosten 中的主要功能 Expert Option has worked as a consultant for Reckitt Benckiser who makes suboxone. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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